Install Gentoo on Mac-Mini

| 分类 Utility 

最近因为工作原因,需要装个 Linux,作为砖头用户的死衷,必须继续 emerge。另外由于台式机要用来处理邮件和文档,所以选择了在 Mac-Mini 上来安装 Gentoo。这里简单记安装的过程和注意事项。

1 准备安装媒介

从网上下载 Gentoo 所需的文件 install-cd 和 stage3 的归档包:

另准备 U 盘一个, 并将 install-amd64-minimal-20140904.iso 制作成启动 U 盘,并将后面两者拷贝进 U 盘。 启动 U 盘的制作可通过 unetbootin 来完成,或者自行 google 其他方法。

2 准备分区

用 OS X 自带的磁盘工具来准备分区,可以参考:

Partition Your Mac

You’ll now need to resize your Mac OS X system partition to make room for your Linux distribution of choice. From within Mac OS X, press Command + Space, type Disk Utility, and press Enter to open the Disk Utility. Select your Mac’s hard drive in the list on the left and select Partition on the right.


Shrink the current Mac OS X partition to make space for your Linux system. How much space you want for Linux is up to you. Ubuntu’s system requirements say it requires at least 5 GB of space, but something like 20 GB is much more reasonable. Drag and drop the handle on the partition volume or enter a final size for the partition and click Partition to partition it.

Don’t create a new partition after shrinking your current partition — just leave the space empty for now.


3 安装配置 rEFInd

3.1 安装 rEFind

rEFInd 是一个启动管理器,可以简化双系统的启动,安装方法可以参考 里面的 Install rEFInd:

Install rEFInd

rEFInd is a boot manager that will allow you to choose between Mac OS X, Linux, Windows, and other operating systems when you boot your computer. Installing rEFInd makes the dual-boot process easier. (Some older how-to’s will instruct you to use rEFIt, but it’s no longer maintained. rEFInd is a currently maintained boot manager based on rEFIt.)

Full-disk encryption causes problems with rEFIt, so you’ll need to disable full-disk encryption or do some extra work before installing rEFInd.

First, visit the rEFInd page on SourceForge and click the Download button to download the latest refind-bin-[version].zip file. Open a Terminal window by pressing Command + Space and, typing Terminal, and pressing Enter. Drag and drop the file from the downloaded zip file into the terminal window and press Enter to run it.


Shut down your Mac — a full shut down, not a restart — and boot it back up again. You should see the rEFInd boot manager screen.


上述介绍中,并没有安装 ext4 的驱动,最好在 后面加上选项“–alldrivers”来安装上所有的驱动:

cd PATH_OF_REFIND && ./install --alldrivers

3.2 配置 rEFind

安装完成之后,在 /EFI 里面会出现一个 refind 目录,里面有个文件名为 refind.conf,打开该文件,找到其中的 "scan_all_linux_kernels" 这一行,并打开注释。

关于 refind 的更多配置,refind.conf 里面介绍的很详细,或者也可以参考 这里

4 U 盘启动安装

关机,插入 U 盘,启动。此时会进入 rEFind ,从其中选择带有 U 盘标记的启动项,会进入 minial cd ,此后的安装过程就可以参考 Gentoo Install Guide 了,参考其 1 ~ 9。

第 7 步里面的内核配置有两个地方需要注意:

  • EFI stub kernel

    EFI Stub Kernel 可以通过 EFI 来直接启动 Linux,换句话说,可以直接从 rEFind 来启动 Gentoo,配置过程可以参考 Gentoo Wiki.

  • Garaphic Support 配置
    Device Drivers -->
             Graphic Support -->
                      <*> /dev/agpgart (AGP Support)  ----
                      <M> Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support)  --->
                          I2C encoder or helper chips  --->
                      <M> ATI Radeon
                           [ ]   Enable userspace modesetting on radeon (DEPRECATED)
                      {*} Support for frame buffer devices  --->
                           [*]   EFI-based Framebuffer Support

    这里启用了 KMS,但要注意的是,一定要将 EFI-based FB 编译进内核,否则无法进 CommandLine Mode.

  • Command Line Parameters


    Processor type and features  --->
          [*] Built-in kernel command line
                 (root=/dev/sda5 rootfstype=ext4 ro quiet) Built-in kernel command string

启用上述配置之后生成的内核,可以直接用于从 rEFind 来启动 Linux , 因为我们可以用 rEFind 来引导启动 之后的步骤,则可以省略了。

上述步骤完成之后,拔下 U 盘,重启系统, rEFind 就应该可以扫描到新安装的 gentoo 并启动它了。

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